Download Microsoft Optical Mouse Driver Install Update
Non-HID keyboards and mice can connect over multiple legacy buses but still use the same class driver. This section contains details on the class drivers themselves.
The following sections goes into details on the controllers. This topic describes the typical physical configuration of keyboard and mouse devices in Microsoft Windows and later. The following figures show two common configurations that employ a single keyboard and a single mouse. The figure on the left shows a keyboard and a mouse connected to a system bus through independent controllers.
This topic describes the features of the following Microsoft Windows and later system class drivers:. Connection of a class service callback routine that a function driver uses to transfer data from the input data buffer of the device to the data buffer of the class driver. Each class driver creates an upper-level class filter device object filter DO that is attached to a function device object FDO through an optional upper-level device filter DO. An upper-level device filter driver creates the upper-level device filter DO.
Iprt creates the function DO and attaches it to a physical device object PDO created by the root bus driver. Kbdclass and Mouclass can support more than one device in two different modes. In the one-to-one mode , each device has an independent device stack.
The class driver creates and attaches an independent class DO to each device stack. Each device stack has its own control state and input buffer. The Microsoft Win32 subsystem accesses input from each device through a unique file object. In the grandmaster mode , the class driver operates all the devices in the following way:. The class driver creates both a grandmaster class DO that represents all of the devices and a subordinate class DO for each device.
The class driver attaches a subordinate class DO to each device stack. Below the subordinate class DO, the device stack is same as that created in the one-to-one mode. The Win32 subsystem accesses all device input through the file object that represents the grandmaster class device.
Otherwise Kbdclass and Mouclass operate in grandmaster mode. The Microsoft Win32 subsystem opens all keyboard and mouse devices for its exclusive use.
For each device class, the Win32 subsystem treats input from all the devices as if the input came from a single input device. An application cannot request to receive input from only one particular device. The Win32 subsystem closes Plug and Play devices after it receives notification that an opened interface is disabled. Note that once the Win32 subsystem successfully opens a legacy device, it cannot determine if the device is later physically removed.
After Kbdclass and Mouclass receive a create request they do the following for Plug and Play and legacy operation:. Otherwise the class driver completes the request without sending the request down the driver stack. The class driver sets the trusted file that has read access to the device. If there is a grandmaster device, the class driver sends a create request to all the ports that are associated with the subordinate class devices.
The class driver sends an internal device control request to the port driver to enable the device. The class drivers must connect their class service to a device before the device can be opened. The class drivers connect their class service after they attach a class DO to a device stack.
The function driver uses the class service callback to transfer input data from a device to the class data queue for the device. The function driver's ISR dispatch completion routine for a device calls the class service callback. A vendor can modify the operation of a class service callback by installing an upper-level filter driver for a device. The sample filter service callbacks can be configured to modify the input data that is transferred from the port input buffer for a device to the class data queue.
For example, the filter service callback can delete, transform, or insert data. After the filter driver receives the connect request, it saves a copy of the class connect data, and replaces the request's connect data with filter connect data.
The filter connect data specifies a pointer to the filter device object and a pointer to the filter driver service callback. The filter driver then sends the filtered connect request to the function driver. The function driver uses the filter connect data to make the initial callback to the filter service callback. After filtering the input data, the filter service callback uses the class connect data that it saved to make a callback to the class service callback.
Iprt supports the following internal device control requests to query information about a keyboard device, and to set parameters on a keyboard device:. For more information about all keyboard device control requests, see Iprt Keyboard Internal Device Control Requests. If a device produces an incorrect scan code for a certain key, the wrong virtual key message will be sent.
This can be fixed by writing a filter driver that analyzes the scan codes generated by firmware and modifies the incorrect scan code to one understood by the system. However, this is a tedious process and can sometimes lead to severe problems, if errors exist in the kernel-level filter driver.
Windows and Windows XP include a new Scan Code Mapper, which provides a method that allows for mapping of scan codes. The scan code mappings for Windows are stored in the following registry key:. Note There is also a Keyboard Layouts key notice the plural form under the Control key, but that key should not be modified. In the Keyboard Layout key, the Scancode Map value must be added.
The third DWORD entry holds a count of the total number of mappings that follow, including the null terminating mapping. The minimum count would therefore be 1 no mappings specified.
The individual mappings follow the header. Each WORD field stores the scan code for a key to be mapped. Once the map is stored in the registry, the system must be rebooted for the mappings to take effect. Note that if the mapping of a scan code is necessary on a keypress, the step is performed in user mode just before the scan code is converted to a virtual key.
Doing this conversion in user mode can present certain limitations, such as mapping not working correctly when running under Terminal Services. The following presents an example. It is also possible to add a key not generally available on a keyboard or to remove a key that is never used. Iprt supports the following internal device control request to query information about a mouse device:.
Additional details on each specific registry key are available on http: In addition to dividing the device input value by the maximum capability of the device, the driver scales the device input value by 0xFFFF:. The following specifies, by type of device, how these special requirements for an absolute pointing device are implemented:.
Mouhid, the Windows function driver for HID mouse devices, implements these special requirements automatically. An upper-level filter driver is required.
The filter driver supplies an IsrHook callback and a class service callback. Iprt calls the IsrHook to handle raw device input, and calls the filter class service callback to filter the input.
The filter class service callback, in turn, calls MouseClassServiceCallback. A Plug and Play function driver is required. A device-specific function driver is required. Our new feedback system is built on GitHub Issues. Read about this change in our blog post. The following additional information is important for keyboard and mice manufactures: Keyboards are opened in exclusive mode by the operating system stack for security reasons Windows supports the simultaneous connection of more than one keyboard and mouse device.
Windows does not support independent access by a client to each device. Class driver features This topic describes the features of the following Microsoft Windows and later system class drivers: Mouclass implements the Mouclass service and its executable image is mouclass.
Kbdclass and Mouclass each feature: Generic and hardware-independent operation of the device class. Operation of legacy devices. Simultaneous operation of more than one device. Mouclass, the upper-level mouse class filter driver One or more optional upper-level mouse filter driver Iprt, the function driver Kbdclass and Mouclass can support more than one device in two different modes. In the grandmaster mode , the class driver operates all the devices in the following way: The grandmaster class DO controls the operation of all the subordinate DOs.
All device input is buffered in the grandmaster's data queue. The grandmaster maintains a single global device state. Open and close via the class driver The Microsoft Win32 subsystem opens all keyboard and mouse devices for its exclusive use. After Kbdclass and Mouclass receive a create request they do the following for Plug and Play and legacy operation: Legacy Operation The class driver sends an internal device control request to the port driver to enable the device.
Connect a service callback to a device The class drivers must connect their class service to a device before the device can be opened. The class and filter service callbacks are connected in the following way: The class and filter service callbacks are called in the following way: Query and set a keyboard device Iprt supports the following internal device control requests to query information about a keyboard device, and to set parameters on a keyboard device: The scan code mappings for Windows are stored in the following registry key: Start offset in bytes Size in bytes Data 0 4 Header: Version Information 4 4 Header:
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